Back in the July 2000 issue of Popular Mechanics, on page 28 there was a small article about my phone keyboard invention. Half way down on the left in the Technology Watch section:
Placing the missing characters over the number 1 lets you send the entire alphabet, says James Burrell. His company, AM Research of Union, N.J., (www.8key.com) won a patent for the idea. He says he will license it to 911 centers for a dollar a month. AM has a similar system for use as a one-hand keyboard that helps to prevent carpal tunnel syndrome by reducing hand motion.
To my surprise, on page 22 of the July 2000 Popular Mechanics issue, is the Hypersonic Space Airplane design I gave to NASA after the January 28, 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger accident.
The International Space Agency believes in the Space Airplane design, and promotes it on their website. The original hypersonic space airplane drawings I sent to NASA did not have the cargo bay doors drawn on top fuselage of the space airplane. I forget who I was talking with at NASA, but they made me re-submit the space airplane drawings a second time with the cargo bay doors drawn on the top of the space airplane design. I did not have the money nor the means to test my hypersonic space airplane design or air breathing combined cycle rocket engine and thrust vectoring technology, so I just gave it to NASA. This all happened around 15 to 20 years ago in the mid 80's. The original space airplane was developed at the same time NASA was designing and building the space shuttle. In 1976, I met with one of the engineers working on the space shuttle to talk about my space airplane's designs and engines. My main concern was with the heat resistant tiles glued to the bottom of the space shuttle, which fall off in flight and re-entry. I suggested using a solid heat shield to NASA, but to them I was only a child with no aerospace education. My space airplane design uses a giant one piece heat shield fastened to the bottom of the space airplane, but I needed a sealer. It was not until the 90's that NASA finally invented a heat resistant sealer for the heat resistant tiles that keep falling off.
The International Space Agency believes the Space Airplane design should be launched from an electromagnetic rail. Look how long it has taken for NASA to get this far with my hypersonic space airplane and engine designs. If I had filed a patent on my hypersonic space airplane and engine designs, the patent would have expired or been ready to expire. I'm not really worried at all, there are so many things I made sure not to disclose to NASA. I have the original hypersonic space airplane design from before the January 28, 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger accident and a few space airplane designs that were redesigned after the Space Shuttle Challenger accident. The engineers at NASA could not understand why the hypersonic space airplane design I gave them did not have any wheels for landing. The space airplane was designed to land on water or on a dry, flat area in case of an emergency or on the back of an aircraft designed to launch and retrieve the hypersonic space airplane in mid-air. Getting rid of the wheels and wheel wells provides much more room for fuel and cargo. An intercontinental commercial version of the hypersonic space airplane would not require as much fuel and could be designed with wheels for landing on runways. The hypersonic space airplane design can easily be adapted for high speed intercontinental aircraft capable of reaching speeds in excess of 10,000 to 15,000 miles per hour or greater.
The eight-year, $230 million Hyper-X Program, managed by the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate in Washington, DC and is conducted jointly by NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., and Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The Hyper-X research program is designed to test alternate propulsion technologies for space and high-speed flight within the atmosphere. ATK-GASL (formerly Microcraft, Inc.) in Tullahoma, Tennessee and Ronkonkoma, New York built the X-43A aircraft and the scramjet engine. Boeing Phantom Works in Huntington Beach, California designed the thermal protection and onboard systems. The booster is a modified first stage of a Pegasus rocket built by Orbital Sciences Corp in Chandler, Arizona. The NASA Hyper-X / X-43 program's aerodynamics lead, Walt Engelund of NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va., directs and oversees the aerodynamics-related activities for the X-43A. Engelund spends his time using wind tunnel testing, computer analysis, and computer model development. Griffin Corpening is the chief engineer on the unmanned X-43A hypersonic research aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base in California. Before coming to Dryden, Corpening worked at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Columbia, MD as well as at the University of Maryland, where he studied under two of the world's leading hypersonic and scramjet experts. NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va., manages and funds the X-43A project.
The engine configuration and data on the tested X-43A scramjet rocket engine is probably classified. When I gave NASA the hypersonic space airplane design, I also submitted the primary and secondary air burner arrangement for the combined cycle rocket engine. I do not know if they used both air burner arrangements. I did not give NASA my secondary cycle rocket engine configuration for space travel. The combined cycle rocket engine I designed uses the compressed air flowing along the fuselage of the space airplane as a primary fuel source. Using an air breathing combined cycle rocket engine and the compressed air along the fuselage as a fuel source reduces the aircraft's engine weight significantly because the engine is part of the outside fuselage. Aurora uses an external air breathing engine. The engine is also located on the bottom of the aircraft.
Three years ago, on June 2, 2001 NASA began testing the first air breathing engine on the experimental X-43A aircraft. The first X-43A came apart in flight and crashed into the sea a few seconds shortly after launch. On March 27, 2003, NASA finally tested the supersonic air breathing ramjet / scramjet rocket engine design on the 2nd X-43A. The 2nd X-43A took off at 12:40 p.m. PST from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The X-43A was mounted on a modified Pegasus booster rocket carried by NASA's B-52B launch aircraft. The rocket carried the X-43A up to 95,000 ft. over the Pacific Ocean, where the X-43A flew freely for several minutes and the air breathing scramjet rocket engine operated for about 10 seconds. In the process of demonstrating a scramjet-powered airplane in flight for the first time, the X-43 set a world speed record for an "air breathing" (jet-powered) vehicle. The unpiloted 12-foot-long scramjet-powered vehicle briefly flew under its own power at seven times the speed of sound, almost 5,000 mph. It easily surpassed the previous record set by the military's now-retired SR-71 Blackbird high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft, which flew at about Mach 3.2. When the 2nd X-43A research vehicle flew Mach 6.83, close to seven times the speed of sound (the speed of sound is about 760 mph at sea level), the friction generated a 2600 degrees Fahrenheit temperature on the leading edges of the vehicle's horizontal tails (enough to melt unprotected metal). Carbon-carbon thermal protection material kept them cool enough to withstand the searing heat. This is a challenge for even the most advanced thermal protection materials.
The 3rd X-43A test flight, originally scheduled for November 15th, 2004, took place in restricted airspace over the Pacific Ocean, northwest of Los Angeles. The flight was postponed by one day when repair of an instrumentation problem with the X-43A caused a delay. When the preflight checklist was resumed, not enough time remained to meet the FAA launch deadline of 7 p.m. EST. The flight was the last and fastest of three unpiloted flight tests in NASA's Hyper-X Program. The program's purpose is to explore an alternative to rocket power for space access vehicles. On Tuesday, November 16th, 2004, NASA's X-43A research vehicle demonstrated that an air-breathing engine can fly at nearly 10 times the speed of sound. Preliminary data from the scramjet-powered research vehicle showed its revolutionary engine reached nearly Mach 9.8, or 7,000 mph (almost two miles per second), at an altitude around 110,000 feet. The booster rocket launched the 3rd X-43A higher (110,000 ft vs. 95,000 ft) before it separated and started its scramjet. The X-43A was attached to a modified Pegasus rocket booster and tucked under the wing of a B-52B launch aircraft. The final X-43A mission is expected to be the last research mission for NASA's venerable B-52B "mothership" heavy launch aircraft, which is due to be retired in the near future after almost 50 years of service. The X-43A will travel further (about 850 miles vs. 450 miles) before splashing into the ocean. The flight took off from the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The booster and X-43A were released from the B-52B at 40,000 feet. Once the booster's engine ignited, the booster brought the X-43A to its intended altitude and speed. The X-43A then separated from the booster and accelerated on scramjet power for a brief flight at around Mach 9.6, or 7,000 mph, at around 110,000 feet. The vehicle will have additional thermal protection, since it will experience heating roughly twice that experienced by the 2nd Mach 7 vehicle. Reinforced carbon-carbon composite material is being added to the leading edges of the vehicle's vertical fins as well as the nose and wings to handle the higher temperatures. An important design change in the 3rd X-43A is that the vertical tails are solid. Vehicle 1 and Vehicle 2 did not use a solid vertical tail design, but used a ribbed structure construction. Carbon-carbon leading edges have been added to the vertical tails on Vehicle 3. Blistering temperatures, created at the Mach 10 (7000 mph) speed, will be around 3600 degrees. The nose of the vehicle becomes the hotspot at maximum speed. The heat distribution is different this time due to material differences. Vehicle 3 will also have additional thermal coatings on the horizontal tails' carbon-carbon leading edges.
NASA's X-43A's design and Aurora is flawed. The main design flaw is the location of the scramjet engine on the bottom of the X-43A's fuselage. Placing the scramjet on the bottom of the X-43A requires extra long landing gears, which are heavier and structurally weaker, and require more room for storage. One of the main reasons for not placing the scramjet engine on the bottom of the fuselage, is that the design will never be able to make an emergency landing. Any attempt to make an emergency landing will end in the complete destruction of the aircraft, engine and all occupants inside. Another main design flaw is that the engine and probably the aircraft will be destroyed upon reentry in the earth's atmosphere.
Supersonic combustion ramjets / scramjets promise more airplane-like operations for increased affordability, flexibility and safety for ultra high-speed flights within the atmosphere and for the first stage to Earth orbit. The scramjet advantage is that, once they are accelerated to about Mach 4 (four times the speed of sound) by a conventional jet airplane engine, it is believed that they can be flown in the atmosphere up to about Mach 15 without having to carry heavy oxygen tanks as rockets must. Rockets are designed to produce full thrust or nearly full thrust all the time. A scramjet can be throttled back and flown more like an airplane. The vehicle is accelerated to about Mach 4 by a conventional jet engine, then start the scramjet engine (which has few or no moving parts) by introducing fuel and mixing it with oxygen obtained from the air and compressed for combustion. The air is naturally compressed by the forward speed of the vehicle and the shape of the inlet, similar to what turbines or pistons do in airplanes and cars.
While the concept is simple, proving the concept has not been simple. At operational speeds, flow through the scramjet engine is supersonic or faster than the speed of sound. At that speed, ignition and combustion take place in a matter of milliseconds. This is one reason it has taken researchers decades to demonstrate scramjet technologies, first in wind tunnels and computer simulations, and only recently in experimental flight tests. Supersonic combustion ramjets (scramjets) will provide increased affordability, flexibility and safety in ultra high-speed flights within the atmosphere and upper atmosphere. Once the scramjet is accelerated to around Mach 4, by a conventional jet engine or booster rocket, it can fly at hypersonic speeds around Mach 15. The engine has no moving parts and compresses all the air passing over the fuselage and into the mouth of the engine. The thrust can be controlled by throttling back on the liquid fuel. Liquid and solid fuel rockets produce full thrust continuously.
A video clip, images and more information are available on the Internet at:
NASA TV is available on the Web and via satellite in the continental U.S. on AMC-6, Transponder 9C, C-Band, at 72 degrees west longitude. The frequency is 3880.0 MHz. Polarization is vertical, and audio is monaural at 6.80 MHz. In Alaska and Hawaii, NASA TV is available on AMC-7, Transponder 18C, C-Band, at 137 degrees west longitude. The frequency is 4060.0 MHz. Polarization is vertical, and audio is monaural at 6.80 MHz. NASA TV is webcast at: http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/nasatv/index.html
The world's most powerful jet engine, the GE90-115B is produced by General Electric, making it possible to power the space airplane launch/retrieval aircraft that I also designed for the hypersonic space airplane. The GE 90-115B produced 127,900 pounds of thrust and was certified by the FAA. with up to 115,000 pounds of thrust. Using rockets to launch things into space is very expensive and very dangerous. So far 2 space shuttles have been destroyed. The space airplane launch aircraft I designed takes off from a long runway and brings the space airplane into the upper atmosphere, where the space airplane is then launched. I have made so many changes and improvements to the space airplane's design, combined cycle rocket engine design and launch aircraft since I originally submitted my designs to NASA. Sooner or later NASA will have to contact me, James Burrell, if they want increase the efficiency of my new space airplane design and air breathing combined cycle rocket engine design. For anyone skilled in the art, I have not provided enough information for one skilled in the art to build or use my invention. Therefore, this would not be considered a full disclosure or even a partial disclosure. Hey NASA, you probably just lost my phone number or misplaced it, so if you would like to contact me Click Here. If anyone reading this knows where the 3 dimensional drawing of my space airplane is stored at the Marshall Space Flight Center, please let me know who to contact about finishing my space airplane design. I sent an email to the Marshall Space Flight Center and all NASA returned to me was an email with a link on their website for "GUIDANCE FOR THE PREPARATION AND SUBMISSION OF UNSOLICITED PROPOSALS". NASA I have already submitted on paper, more than 15+ years ago, my unique and innovative unsolicited proposal, my space airplane which is shown on page 22 of the July 2000 Popular Mechanics issue, to further the Agency's mission. Now that NASA has proven the feasibility of the air breathing combined cycle rocket engine, I would like to give NASA the rest of my space airplane design, so NASA can finally build my space airplane design.
The hypersonic space airplane launch aircraft I have designed will be the largest aircraft ever built by mankind. In the mid 80's I came across two boxes of thin cardboard paper cutout airplanes called "White Wings". "White Wings" were designed by an engineer, Dr. Yasuaki Ninomiya, with a Ph.D. in the field of microwave measurement theory. With the skill of a surgeon, I took the greatest care in meticulously cutting out all the cardboard parts. Instead of using a scissor to cut out the parts, making the edges jagged and imperfect, I placed the cardboard parts on a flat surface and used sharp razor blades for perfect edges. After intricately cutting, gluing and assembling, I was really impressed with how much the planes looked like their real life aircraft counterparts and how well they were designed and balanced. Using the same gauge cardboard paper and glue, I started building prototypes of my aircraft designs. I built short airplanes & long airplanes, thick airplanes & narrow airplanes, airplanes without canards & airplanes with canards. After completing all the airplane prototypes, I brought the "White Wings" airplanes and my airplane prototypes to an inside basketball court on a non-windy day. I tested the "White Wings" airplanes over and over again, trying to get them to fly straight. After countless flights and continually adjusting the "White Wings" airplanes, only a couple of the airplanes flew almost strait and only a couple of the airplanes flew halfway across the gym floor. I then gave up on the "White Wings" airplanes and finally began testing my aircraft prototypes. I started with the shorter aircraft prototypes, which flew almost perfectly straight and were almost hitting the wall on the other side of the basketball court. As I increased the length and size of my aircraft prototypes, the aircraft prototypes flew perfectly straight and were all hitting the wall on the other side of the basketball court while in flight. The space airplane launch aircraft is a scaled up adaptation of my aircraft design prototypes that I built and tested in the mid 80's. When I originally approached NASA and Boeing with my aircraft design ideas, engine designs and trust vectoring technology they told me I was 20 years ahead of my time and they were not interested. 20 years have past me by, I now have a computer with a copy of Solid Works and have finally begun designing the Space Airplane on my computer. In the March 2007 issue of Popular Science, an article on page 64 shows a gull-wing aircraft design close to my hypersonic space airplane launch aircraft design. The supersonic plane (1100 mph, est.), named the QSST, is a proposed design slated for manufacture by Lockheed Martin and Supersonic Aerospace International.
In 2003, I also submitted an aircraft carrier design to the US Department of the Navy that will attain speeds in excess of 200 miles per hour. After submitting one of my aircraft carrier designs to the Navy, the Navy never returned my phone calls. I approached the Navy because I wanted to have an aircraft carrier to land the space airplane launch/recovery aircraft onto. The Navy does not have an aircraft carrier fast enough or large enough to land any large aircraft. I have also redesigned the combined cycle rocket engine into a continuous wave electro-magnetic hydro-dynamic thrust engine for marine and sub-marine use. The submarine disclosed in the movie "Red October" uses a pulsed wave electro-magnetic hydro-dynamic thrust engine.